Sinusitis, signaling the symptoms such as headache, nasal congestion, yellow-green discharge from the nose and nasal passages, weakness, and difficulty in adaptation after catching the flu and cold, is a disease that shows its effects mostly in the winter months whereas it is seen in all seasons. Reducing the quality of life of people, Sinusitis problem can be prevented by medical or surgical intervention.
Sinusitis is a disease that occurs when the spaces in the facial bones are filled with inflamed tissue. It shows itself with nasal congestion, yellow-green nasal and nasal discharge, headache, and difficulty in smelling.
Sinuses are air spaces around the nose. In human anatomy, there are four pairs of sinuses. These:
Sinusitis, on the other hand, is a general definition indicating inflammation in the sinuses around the nose. In general, sinusitis occurs as a result of the mucus produced by the lining mucosa not being discharged into the nose.
In the presence of one or more of these factors, the reproduction of bacteria in the mucus accumulated in the sinuses causes sinusitis. Sinusitis is generally classified as:
If one or more of these factors occur, it turns into sinusitis with the reproduction of bacteria in the mucus accumulated in the sinuses. There are five types of sinusitis;
Sinusitis caused by the growth of bacteria in the mucosa in the sinus cavities is called acute sinusitis if it lasts less than 2 weeks, subacute sinusitis if it lasts between 2 and 12 weeks, and chronic sinusitis if it lasts longer than 12 weeks.
Sinuses are located around our noses. They are parts of the mucus-forming nasal system. Normally, the nose and sinuses secrete about half a liter of mucus per day. The mucus produced sweeps away dust particles, bacteria, and other airborne particles. The mucus is then filtered back down the throat and swallowed. The bacteria in it are destroyed by stomach acid. This is a normal bodily function.
Sinusitis, on the other hand, is a general definition indicating inflammation in the sinuses around the nose. In general, sinusitis occurs as a result of the mucus produced by the lining mucosa not being discharged into the nose. There are three factors that cause this;
In the presence of one or more of these factors, the reproduction of bacteria in the mucus accumulated in the sinuses causes sinusitis.
The most important factors affecting the formation of sinusitis are the immune system and, accordingly, frequent upper respiratory tract infections, nasal and sinus anatomy (curvature of the nasal bone or cartilage, the size of the nasal concha or closed sinus canals, nasal and sinus tumors), nasal and sinus tumors, adenoid especially in children, allergic rhinitis, and polluted air (smoking).
Adenoid, nasal curvature, cystic fibrosis, insufficiency of the immune system are some causes of chronic sinusitis. Chronic sinusitis can also develop due to allergies. Polyps and tumors in the nose, foreign bodies, and anatomical abnormalities in the nose are the other causes of dental infection and sinusitis.
Symptoms of sinusitis vary from person to person. In general, patients think that they have sinusitis when they feel pain in the face or head. However, the rate of pain in sinusitis is around 5%. The prominent complaints are nasal congestion, distortion in the voice, facial fullness, and runny nose.
The most common symptoms of sinusitis can be listed as follows:
If sinusitis is not treated correctly, it can cause very serious diseases such as chronic pharyngitis, chronic gastritis, reflux, infections and abscesses around the eyes, meningitis, and brain abscess. Diagnosis is made by ear-nose-throat examination, endoscopic examination, direct radiography, and sinus tomography.
Sinusitis is a disease responding to medical and surgical methods. The most important medication used in acute sinusitis is antibiotics although acute sinusitis is usually treated with medication. Duration of use varies between 10 and 21 days, depending on the severity of the disease. The use of antibiotics for at least 7 days after the yellow-green nasal discharge has passed is the determining criterion for the duration. If the medication recommended by your doctor is not used in acute sinusitis, sinusitis may recur and become chronic. Nasal sprays, cold pills, and nasal and sinus washing liquids are used in the treatment.
Chronic sinusitis is primarily treated with medication. Surgical treatment should be resorted to in resistant cases and recurrent cases. "Endoscopic Sinus Surgery" can be applied to patients with chronic sinusitis or "Balloon Sinoplasty Surgery" method can be applied to some patients.
Sinus canals are opened by correcting polyps and other anatomical defects that block the sinuses in endoscopic sinus surgery. This method requires a long recovery period. Sinusitis surgery can also be performed on children. In these surgeries performed after the age of 13-14, when the sinus formation is completed, the nose being close to small, narrow, and important structures requires a careful operation. Since anatomy is difficult in these cases, safer methods can be used with navigation BT.
Even though it is treated, it is important to prevent sinusitis that may recur. To prevent sinusitis, the following recommendations should be followed: